Warwickshire

Warwickshire

County

The arms were officially granted in 1931.

The bear and ragged staff have long been associated with Warwickshire. The origins of these emblems are lost in the distant past, but have been associated with the Earls of Warwick since at least as early as the 14th century. William Dugdale in the 17th century, recalls that the legendary Arthgallus, an Britsh Earl of Warwick and knight of King Arthur’s Round Table, thought that his name came from the Welsh “artos” or bear. He also suggested that the ragged staff was chosen because Morvidus, Earl of Warwick, killed a giant with the broken branch of a tree. These claims cannot be supported and Dugdale was just recalling medieval legends. However, there is no doubt that the bear and the ragged staff were first used by the Beauchamp family, who became Earls of Warwick in 1268, as a badge or mark of identity in to addition to their own coat of arms.
At first the emblems seem to have been used independently. In 1387 Thomas Beauchamp II (Earl from 1369 to 1402) owned a bed of black material embroidered with a golden bear and silver staff, which is the earliest known occurrence of the two emblems together. The bear and ragged staff have been used by subsequent holders of the Earldom of Warwick, the Dudleys, the Grevilles and are borne as a crest by the present Earl.
Over the centuries they have also come to be associated with the county, and used as a badge 1st Warwickshire Militia regiment and the Warwickshire Constabulary and the Warwickshire County Council obtained the permission to adopt the bear and ragged staff for their common seal in 1907.
The three cross-crosslets are taken from the arms of the Beauchamps, who were earls of Warwick from 1268 to 1449. They are perhaps the most famous of all the families which have held the earldom of Warwick, and this together with the world-wide fame of the Beauchamp Chapel in St Mary’s Church in Warwick makes the inclusion of their arms in the County’s armorial bearings particularly appropriate.

The motto (not without right), in Norman-French, is that of William Shakespeare, without doubt the county’s most famous son.

1791 Warwickshire County J. Farror Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Bust of Shakespeare. WARWICKSHIRE. A trefoil after legend.

Reverse: A female seated, supporting a cornucopia,
part of a ship in the distance, HALFPENNY. Ex: 1791.

Edge:

D&H 45

Bronzed

Ex Richard Dalton Collection

1792 Warwickshire County Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Bust of Shakespeare. WARWICKSHIRE

Reverse: Vulcan seated at work, HALFPENNY. Ex: 1792

Edge: PAYABLE IN ANGLESEY LONDON OR LIVERPOOL . X .

D&H 49

Birmingham

The arms were officially granted on May 10, 1977.

The arms were granted after the merger with Sutton Coldfield and are based on the old arms, see below.

To the old arms a bishops mitre (commemorating the 16th century Bishop Vesey) was added in the center of the shield and the Tudor Rose (marking Henry VIII’s granting of a charter to Sutton Coldfield in 1528) on the mural crown.

Warwickshire Birmingham Wyon’s Penny Conder Token

Obverse: An obelisk partly covered with ivy. CRESCIT IN IMMENSVM. Within a circle of pellets.

Reverse: A cypher T. W. (Wyon). A bouquet in a sunk circle over it. PROMISSORY PENNY TOKEN 1 7 9 6

Edge: I PROMISE TO PAY ON DEMAND THE BEARER ONE PENNY

D&H 25

Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830) of the Wyon family was an English engraver of dies, who became Chief Engraver of the Seals.

He was the eldest of the four sons of George Wyon, an engraver. Around 1796, he went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter, father of William Wyon, as a general die-engraver. They resided at Lionel Street in 1797.

Wyon engraved many dies for tokens, especially part of the Coventry series of buildings. From 1800 he carried on business in London, and on 30 September 1816 was appointed Chief Engraver of the Seals. He died on 18 October 1830 in Nassau Street, London.

Warwickshire Birmingham Hardy’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Figure of boy with spanner in hand standing by large auger: BIRMINGHAM HALFPENNY 1793

Reverse: The arms of the Hardy family consisting of a shield with four hedgehogs and a hedgehog crest: INDUSTRY HAS IT’S SURE REWARD

Edge: CURRENT EVERY WHERE

D&H 50 Diameter 29mm.

Warwickshire Birmingham Hardy’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Figure of boy with spanner in hand standing by large auger: BIRMINGHAM HALFPENNY 1793

Reverse: The arms of the Hardy family consisting of a shield with four hedgehogs and a hedgehog crest: INDUSTRY HAS IT’S SURE REWARD

Edge: PAYABLE AT CLOUGHER OR IN DUBLIN

D&H 50a A. 30a Diameter 29mm.

1796 Warwickshire Birmingham Allin Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: A man holding a flag. ALLIN’S | PANORAMA | GRAND | EXHIBITION | ADMITE | 1s

PEACE AND GOOD WILL TO ALL MEN.

Reverse: CHEAP | CLOTHES | & | YORK SHOE | WAREHOUSE |
WHOLESALE | & | RETAILE.

I . ALLIN HAY-MARKET BIRMINGHAM . 1796 .

Edge: Milled

D&H 62 A. 40

Undated Warwickshire Birmingham Biggs Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Bust to right, DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON.
A small ornament under the bust.

Reverse: Three lions rampant, PROMISSORY . HALFPENNY . PAYABLE . AT.

Edge: BIRMINGHAM W. HAMPTON OR LITCHFIELD

D&H 71a A. 47a

1791 Warwickshire Birmingham Mining and Copper Company Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: A female seated, holding fasces (a bundle of rods), BIRMINGHAM MINING AND COPPER COMPANY. Ex: 1791

Reverse: A stork standing upon a cornucopia. HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT

Edge: BIRMINGHAM REDRUTH & SWANSEA. Zodiac symbols.

O: without the small w under the rock ;a period after legend.

R: the end of the cornucopia reaching to first limb of B

D&H 81

1791 Warwickshire Birmingham Mining and Copper Company Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: A female seated, holding fasces (a bundle of rods), BIRMINGHAM MINING AND COPPER COMPANY. Ex: 1791

Reverse: A stork standing upon a cornucopia. HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT

Edge: BIRMINGHAM REDRUTH & SWANSEA.

O: The point of laurel comes to the centre of the letter G, and
the fasces comes under the A. There is no small w, nor period.

R: The end of the cornucopia to second limb of A.

D&H 82

1792 Warwickshire Birmingham Mining and Copper Company Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: A female seated, holding fasces (a bundle of rods), BIRMINGHAM MINING AND COPPER COMPANY. Ex: 1792

Reverse: A stork standing upon a cornucopia. HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT

Edge: BIRMINGHAM REDRUTH & SWANSEA

O: The fasces under A and first limb of N.

R: The end of cornucopia to second limb of L.

D&H 84

1792 Warwickshire Birmingham Mining and Copper Company Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: A female seated, holding fasces (a bundle of rods), BIRMINGHAM MINING AND COPPER COMPANY. Ex: 1792

Reverse: A stork standing upon a cornucopia. HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT

Edge: BIRMINGHAM REDRUTH & SWANSEA

Obverse: The fasces under first limb of D

Reverse: End of cornucopia to first limb of B, second limb of H between two leaves.

Edge: Engrailed

D&H 111e

Rated as ‘R’ (rare) in Dalton & Hamer

Undated Warwickshire Birmingham Bisset’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: View if interior of a temple, with pictures hanging round the side. BISSET’S MUSEUM & FANCY PICTURE MANUFACTORY.

Reverse: Ornaments of spar, &c. ALABASTER SPAR & PETRIFICATION WAREHOUSE. Ex: BIRMINGHAM.

Edge: Plain

D&H 120

1792 Warwickshire Birmingham Donald’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: DONALD & CO. | STOCKING | MANUFACTURERS| WHOLESALE & | RETAIL. In five lines within an oval formed of leaves, HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT

Reverse: A beehive and bees, within a circle of leaves, NO. 29 BULL STREET BIRMINGHAM 1792

Edge: Plain

D&H 123

Rated ‘S’ (Scarce) by D&H

1792 Warwickshire Birmingham Hickman’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse:

Reverse:

Edge:

D&H 144

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: ASHTED CHAPEL ERECTED

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: COVENTRY TOKEN

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 148

Rated as ‘R’ (rare) by D&H

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: ST. BARTHOLOMEW’S CHAPEL

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 151

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: ST. JOHN’S CHAPEL DERITEND

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 153

History
The church was established in 1380 when the villagers in Deritend were given the right to build their own chapel rather than travel 3 miles to Aston Parish Church.

The church was noted as being the place of worship of John Rogers, the first English Protestant martyr under Mary I of England.

The church was rebuilt in 1735, with the tower being added in 1762. In 1939 the church was united with St Basil’s Church, Deritend and St Basil’s Church was used as the church of the united benefice. St John’s was demolished in 1947. The calvary which had been erected as a memorial for the First World War was moved to St Gabriel’s Church, Weoley Castle.

Bells
Eight bells were cast in 1776 by Robert Wells of Aldbourne, Wiltshire and these were moved to Bishop Latimer Memorial Church, Winson Green and then were moved to St John’s Church, Perry Barr in 1972.

From the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery’s online database: This copper token depicts the St John’s chapel. It is one of a set with views of Birmingham issued by Peter Kempson in 1797. The church was built in 1735 to replace a medieval chapel. It was damaged during the Second World War and later demolished.

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: ST. MARTIN’S CHURCH

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 154

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: ST. MARY’S CHAPEL

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 156

From the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery’s online database: This copper token depicts St Mary’s Chapel. It is one of a set with views of Birmingham issued by Peter Kempson in 1797. The chapel was situated on Whittall Street. It was built in 1774 and closed in 1925.

Image from 1878

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: THE OLD MEETING DESTROY’D 1791

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 160

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: OLD MEETING AS REBUILT IN 1794

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 162

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: NEW MEETING BURNT IN 1791

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 164

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: MEETING PARADISE STRT ERECTED

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 167

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: NEW JERUSALEM TEMPLE ERECTED

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 169

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: St. PAUL’S CHAPEL

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 172

Now known as St Paul’s Church, and a spire has been added:

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: St. PHILIPS CHURCH

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

The Cathedral Church of Saint Philip is the Church of England cathedral and the seat of the Bishop of Birmingham. Built as a parish church and consecrated in 1715, St Philip’s became the cathedral of the newly formed Diocese of Birmingham in 1905. St Philip’s was built in the early 18th century in the Baroque style by Thomas Archer and is located on Colmore Row, Birmingham, England. The cathedral is a Grade I listed building. St Philip’s is the third smallest cathedral in England after Derby and Chelmsford.

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 175

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: BARRACKS ERECTED

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 177

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token, struck in brass

Obverse: GENERAL HOSPITAL

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 181

Listed in Dalton & Hamer as “RARE” (when struck in brass)

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: LIBRARY

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM. Inner legend, reverse 4.

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 184a A. 160

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: OLD CROSS

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 188

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: WELCH CROSS

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 191

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: BLUE SCHOOL ERECTED 1724.

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 194

From the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery’s online database: This copper token depicts the Blue Coat Charity school. It is one of a set with views of Birmingham issued by Peter Kempson in 1797. The school was built in 1724 as a charity school for boys and girls and was situated on Colmore Row. The building was demolished in 1935.

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: BLUE COAT CHARITY SCHOOL ENLARGED 1794.

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 197a

From the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery’s online database: This copper token depicts the Blue Coat Charity school. It is one of a set with views of Birmingham issued by Peter Kempson in 1797. The school was built in 1724 as a charity school for boys and girls and was situated on Colmore Row. The building was demolished in 1935.

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: FREE SCHOOL

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 200

From the Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery’s online database: This copper token depicts the Free school. It is one of a set with views of Birmingham issued by Peter Kempson in 1797. King Edward’s Grammar School was housed in this building from 1707 until Sir Charles Barry’s gothic edifice was built in the 1830s.

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: NEW BREWERY ERECTED 1792

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 205

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: MDCCLXXII HOTEL ERECTED

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 208

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: NAVIGATION OFFICE MDCCLXCVI

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 210

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: SOHO MANUFACTORY Ex: ERECTED 1764.

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 212

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: THEATRE 1795

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

Part of Peter Kempson’s “Birmingham Building” token series, made to sell to collectors.

D&H 216

ex. Baldwins Vault

1797 Warwickshire Birmingham Kempson’s Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Bust to right, GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA.

Reverse: P. KEMPSON . MAKER OF BUTTONS MEDALS &c BIRMINGHAM

Edge: Plain

D&H 218

1792 Warwickshire Birmingham John Howard Farthing Conder Token (to be sold)

Obverse: Bust to left, IOHN HOWARD, F.R.S.

Reverse: A cypher, H H. BIRMINGHAM PROMISSORY FARTHING.

Edge: Plain (not in collar)

D&H 481a A. 336a

1792 Warwickshire Birmingham John Howard Farthing Conder Token

Obverse: Bust to left, IOHN HOWARD, F.R.S.

Reverse: A cypher, H H. BIRMINGHAM PROMISSORY FARTHING.

Edge: Plain (not in collar)

D&H 481a A. 336a

John Howard (September 2, 1726 – January 20, 1790) was a British philanthropist and prison reformer. Born into a wealthy family and inheriting considerable fortune, Howard traveled widely. His experience of prison awakened in him a vocation for service, and a subsequent religious experience led him to determine to make an important contribution to the world. Accepting an appointment as High Sheriff, he invested himself personally into the task, visiting the jail and investigating problems with the penal system. He would eventually spend the rest of his life, and considerable amounts of money, on efforts for prison reform and improvement of the lives of prisoners both within the United Kingdom and other countries in Europe. His exemplary efforts in living for the sake of others are remembered and honored in several organizations bearing his name that continue to work for penal reform.John Howard was born on September 2, 1726 in Lower Clapton, London, England. His father was a wealthy upholsterer at Smithfield Market in the city. His mother died when he was five, and being described as a “sickly child,” he was sent to live at Cardington, Bedfordshire, some 40 miles from London, where his father owned property. His father, a strict disciplinarian with strong religious beliefs, sent young John to a school in Hertford and then to John Eames’ Dissenting Academy in London.After school, John worked as an apprentice to a wholesale grocer to learn business methods, but he was unhappy. When his father died in 1742, he was left with a sizable inheritance but no true vocation. His Calvinist faith and quiet, serious disposition meant he had little desire for the fashionable endeavors of an English aristocratic lifestyle. In 1748, he left England to tour France and Italy.Upon his return, he lived in lodgings in Stoke Newington, where he again became seriously ill. He was nursed back to health by his landlady, Sarah Loidore, whom he then married despite her being 30 years his senior. She died within three years, and he distributed her meager belongings amongst her remaining family and poor neighbors.He then set out for Portugal, traveling on the ship Hanover, which was captured by French privateers. He was imprisoned in Brest, France, for six days before being transferred to another prison on the French coast. He was later exchanged for a French officer held by the British, and he quickly traveled to the Commissioners of Sick and Wounded Seamen in London to seek help on behalf of his fellow captives. It is widely believed that this personal experience generated Howard’s interest in prisons.Having returned from France, he settled again at Cardington, Bedfordshire, to live on a 200 acre estate which consisted of two farms, the larger of which he had inherited from his grandparents. He spent the next two years building properties and trying to improve the lives of the tenants living on his land. Later, a survey of Cardington in 1782 found that he was paying for the education of 23 children.In 1758, Howard married Henrietta Leeds. She died in 1765, a week after giving birth to a son, also named John, who was sent to boarding school at a very young age. The younger John was expelled from Cambridge University for homosexual offenses, was judged insane at the age of 21, and died in 1799 having spent 13 years in an asylum.After the death of his wife, Howard returned to traveling. While in Naples, Italy, in 1770, he had a profound religious experience. It is believed that it was then that he made a promise to God that he would make some important contribution to the world. When he was asked in 1773 to become High Sheriff of Bedfordshire, he accepted the post seeing it as a way to serve God.Howard was appointed High Sheriff of Bedfordshire, initially for a one-year period. Such was his dedication that, rather than delegating his duties to the under-sheriff as was customary, Howard inspected the county prison himself. He was shocked by what he found, and spurred into action to inspect prisons throughout England. Of particular concern to Howard were those prisoners who were held in prison despite having been acquitted of any crime by the courts, because they could not pay the jailer’s fee—an amount paid to the owner or keeper of the prison for upkeep. He took this issue to parliament, and in 1774 was called to give evidence on prison conditions to a House of Commons select committee. Members of that committee were so impressed that, unusually, they called Howard to the bar of the House of Commons and publicly thanked him for his “humanity and zeal.”In 1774, the Parliament passed the Gaol Act, which abolished jailer’s fees and proposed ways to improve the sanitary conditions in prisons.Having visited several hundred prisons across England, Scotland, Wales and wider Europe, Howard published the first edition of The State of the Prisons in 1777. It included very detailed accounts of the prisons he had visited, including plans and maps, together with detailed instructions on the necessary improvements. The following account, of the Bridewell at Abingdon, Oxfordshire, is typical:Two dirty day-rooms; and three offensive night-rooms: That for men eight feet square: one of the women’s, nine by eight; the other four and a half feet square: the straw, worn to dust, swarmed with vermin: no court: no water accessible to prisoners. The petty offenders were in irons: at my last visit, eight were women. (Howard 1777)In April 1777, Howard’s sister died, leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778, he was again called by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into “hulks,” or prison ships. Two days after giving evidence, he was again traveling Europe, beginning in Holland.By 1784, Howard calculated that he had traveled over 42,000 miles visiting prisons. He had been awarded an honorary law degree by the University of Dublin and had been given the Freedom of the City of London. His fourth and final tour of English prisons began in March 1787, and two years later he published The State of the Prisons in England, and An Account of the Principal Lazarettos of Europe.Howard’s final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia, where he researched ways to limit contagious diseases. While visiting the military hospital in Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldova. When news of his death reached England, in February 1790, several John Howard halfpennies were struck, including one with the engraving “Go forth, Remember the Debtors in Gaol.”Due to his exemplary efforts in prison reform, John Howard has been honored in various ways. He became the first civilian to be honored with a statue in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedfordshire, England, and a further one in Kherson, Ukraine. His bust features in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the United Kingdom, such as at Shrewsbury.Almost 80 years after his death, the Howard Association was formed in London, with the aim of “”promotion of the most efficient means of penal treatment and crime prevention” and to promote “a reformatory and radically preventive treatment of offenders.” In its first annual report in 1867, the Association stated that its efforts had been focused on “the promotion of reformatory and remunerative prison labor, and the abolition of capital punishment.” The Association merged with the Penal Reform League in 1921 to become the Howard League for Penal Reform. Today, the Howard League is Britain’s largest penal reform organization.

Coventry

The arms were granted according to history by King Edward III in 1345. The present arms are identical to the old arms, with the addition of the supporters, and were granted on February 10, 1959.

The elephant is seen, not only as a beast so strong that he can carry a tower – Coventry’s castle – full of armed men, but also as a symbol of Christ’s redemption of the human race. The elephant is also seen as a dragon slayer in Medieval thinking. There is a now forgotten tradition of dragon-slaying in this neighbourhood – and Coventry to be the birthplace of St. George, who slew the dragon. In the early seals of Coventry, from which the arms are derived, are shown, on one side, the combat between another dragon-slayer, the Archangel Michael, and the dragon. On the other is the elephant and castle. The shield is coloured red and green, the traditional colours of the city dating back at least to 1441.

The crest, a cat-a-mountain, or wild cat, is generally considered to symbolise watchfulness. The helmet is that of an esquire with the visor closed, as with all boroughs.

The Supporters, granted in 1959, comprise the Eagle of Leofric (husband of Lady Godiva) and the Phoenix. The Black Eagle of Leofric recalls the ancient Coventry and the Phoenix arising from the flames represents the New Coventry reborn out of the ashes of the old. Coventry was heavily bombed and nearly completely destroyed during the second world war.

The motto “Camera Principis” (the Prince’s Chamber) is held to refer to Edward, the Black Prince. The Manor of Cheylesmore at Coventry was at one time owned by his grandmother, Queen Isabella, and eventually passed to him.

1792 Warwickshire Coventry Reynolds Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Lady Godiva on horseback. PRO BONO PUBLICO. (for the good of the people). Date in Ex : 1792. Legend in smaller letters, and some distance from horse at end.

Reverse: Elephant and Castle (the arms of Coventry). COVENTRY HALFPENNY.

Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.

D&H 237 A. 177

1794 Warwickshire Coventry Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Lady Godiva on horseback. PRO BONO PUBLICO. (for the good of the people). Date in Ex : 1794

Reverse: An ancient cross, COVY. CROSS upon its base.
COVENTRY HALFPENNY

Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.

D&H 249

Listed in Dalton & Hamer as “RARE”

1797 Warwickshire Coventry Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: ST. MARY HALL.

Reverse: THE ARMS OF COVENTRY 1797. P KEMPSON FECIT. Die No. 1 (No period after P)

Edge: COVENTRY TOKEN.

D&H 295

Rated as Scarce in D&H

Stratford

1790 Warwickshire Stratford Halfpenny Conder Token

Obverse: Bust to left, SHAKESPEARE

Reverse: A female seated holding mining tools. HALFPENNY.

Ex: 1 7 9 0

Edge: PAYABLE IN DUBLIN OR LONDON + . +

D&H 327a A. 139a

Wilkinsons (Birmingham?)

1793 Warwickshire Wilkinsons Halfpenny Conder Token

Iron Master Series, counterfeit

Obverse: Bust of Wilkinson, no period after R. Frill in outline.

Reverse: Straight 1 and 7. Top of 7 pointed. No pivot or bands to hammer.

Edge: PAYABLE IN LANCASTER LONDON OR BRISTOL

D&H 395c A. 2878c

Provenance:

Ex. Fawcett/Litman Collection;

D.L.Spence Collection DNW Auction 29 September 2005, lot 1654 (part)

1797 Warwickshire Wilkinsons Halfpenny Conder Token

Iron Master Series, counterfeit

Obverse: Bust of Wilkinson, no period after R. Different bust to others, two buttons to coat,

Reverse: Date 1 and 7 small; 9 and 3 large.

Edge: PAYABLE AT BIRMINGHAM BRIGHTON OR LIVERPOOL

D&H 399 A. 281

Rated as R Rare in D&H

1797 Warwickshire Wilkinsons Halfpenny Conder Token

Iron Master Series

Obverse: Bust of Wilkinson, no period after R. Different bust to others, two buttons to coat,

Reverse: Vulcan, seated

Edge: PAYABLE IN LANCASTER LONDON OR BRISTOL

D&H 441b A. 294a

A collection of predominantly English coins from the Tudor era to the present day

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