Charles II, 1660-85

Key Events

 1658 Death of Oliver Cromwell. He is succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell
 1659 Richard Cromwell is forced to resign. The Rump Parliament is restored.
 1660 Charles II returns to England from Holland and is restored to the throne.
 1662 Act of Uniformity compels Puritans to accept the doctrines of the Church of England or leave the church.
 1662 Royal Society for the improvement of science founded
 1664 England seizes the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam, changing its name to New York.
 1665 Outbreak of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
 1665 The Great Plague strikes London and over 60,000 die.
 1666 The Great Fire of London rages for four days and three nights. Two thirds of central London is destroyed and 65,000 are left homeless.
 1667 The Earl of Clarendon is replaced by a five-man Cabal.
 1667 Paradise Lost by John Milton published
 1667 A Dutch fleet sails up the River Medway captures the English flagship The Royal Charles and sinks three other great ships
 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover, by which Charles agrees to declare himself a Catholic and restore Catholicism in England in return for secret subsidies from Louis XIV of France.
 1670 Hudson Bay Company founded in North America
 1671 Thomas Blood caught stealing the Crown Jewels
 1672 Outbreak of the Third Dutch War.
 1673 Test Act keeps Roman Catholics out of political office.
 1674 Death of John Milton
 1674 Peace made with the Dutch
 1675 Royal Observatory founded at Greenwich
 1677 John Bunyan publishes The Pilgrims Progress.
 1678 The Popish Plot is fabricated by Titus Oates. He alleges a Catholic plot to murder the King and restore Catholicism. The Government over-reacts, and many Catholic subjects are persecuted.
 1679 Exclusion Bill attempts to exclude James, Charles’s Catholic brother, from the succession.
 1679 Habeas Corpus act passed which forbids imprisonment without trial
 1682 Pennsylvania founded in America by William Penn
 1683 The Rye House Plot a conspiracy to kill Charles and his brother James and return to parliamentary rule is uncovered.
 1685 Charles is received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed.

1661 Official Coronation Medal by Thomas Simon

Excerpt From Samuel Pepys Diaries:

The Coronation of Charles II, April 23rd 1661

… about 4 in the morning I rose.

And got to the abby, where I fallowed Sir J. Denham the surveyour with some company that he was leading in. And with much ado, by the favour of Mr. Cooper his man, did get up into a great scaffold across the north end of the abby – where with a great deal of patience I sat from past 4 till 11 before the King came in. And a pleasure it was to see the Abbey raised in the middle, all covered with red and throne (that is a chaire) and footstoole on the top of it. And all the officers of all kinds, so much as the very fidlers, in red vests.

At last comes in the Deane and prebends of Westminster with the Bishops (many of them in cloth-of-glod Copes); and after them the nobility all in their parliament-robes, which was a most magnificent sight. Then the Duke and the King with a scepter (carried by my Lord of Sandwich) and Sword and mond before him, and the crowne too.

The King in his robes, bare headed, which was very fine. And after all had placed themselfs – there was a sermon and the service. And then in the Quire at the high altar he passed all the ceremonies of the Coronacion – which, to my very great grief, I and most of the Abbey could not see. The crowne being put upon his head, a great shout begun. And he came forth to the Throne and there passed more ceremonies: as, taking the oath and having things read to him by the Bishopp, and his lords (who put on their capps as soon as the King put on his Crowne) and Bishopps came and kneeled before him.

And three times the King-at-armes went to the three open places on the scaffold and proclaimed that if any one could show any reason why Ch.Steward should not be King of England, that now he should come and speak.

And a Generall pardon also was read by the Lord Chancellor; and meddalls flung up and down by my Lord Cornwallis – of silver; but I could not come by any.

1662 Marriage Badge

Coins

1660-61 Halfcrown, third hammered issue

S. 3321

Ex Baldwins Fixed Price List

1662 Crown First bust, stop above, rose below

Edge Undated, Stop after HIB.

S. 3350 Bull 340 ESC 15A

1663 Shilling

S. 3371 Bull 500 ESC 1022

  Slabbed and graded CGS 45 (GVF)

1666 Crown Second bust variety with Elephant below. Extra stop in RE.X.

S. 3356 Bull 369 ESC 34 Rated R2 (very rare)

Slabbed and graded LCGS 30 (GF)

Ex Croydon Coin Auction No.59 (70) and Alan Barr, Part III, Mark Rasmussen, List 8, Summer 2005 (C421) (£750), Mark Rasmussen, List 22 (22/C63) (£1500)

1667 Crown Second bust variety, edge date in Roman words

Edge reads AN – REG – DECIMO NONO

S. 3357 Bull 372 ESC 35A (scarce)

1674 Shilling, second bust, plume below, rev. similar, plume in centre

S. 3776 Bull 526 ESC 1040 [R2] (very rare)

ex Mark Rasmussen 31/C652

ex Mark Rasmussen 22/C322

1674 Sixpence

S. 3382 Bull 566 ESC 1512

  Slabbed and graded CGS 50 (GVF)

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A collection of predominantly English coins from the Tudor era to the present day

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