Charles I, 1625-49

Key Events

 1625 Charles I succeeds his father, James I.
 1626 Parliament attempts to impeach the Duke of Buckingham and is dissolved by Charles.
 1627 England goes to war with France, but at La Rochelle the Duke of Buckingham fails to relieve the besieged Huguenots.
 1628 The Petition of Right a declaration of the “rights and liberties of the subject” is presented to the King, who agrees to it under protest.
 1628 Physician William Harvey demonstrates the circulation of blood in the body
 1629 Charles dissolves Parliament and rules by himself until 1640.
 1630 The colony of Massachusetts is founded in America
 1633 Work begins on Buckingham Palace in London
 1637 Charles tries to force new prayer book on Scots, who resist by signing the National Covenant.
 1639 Act of Toleration in England established religious toleration
 1640 Charles summons the Short Parliament, which he dissolves three weeks later when it refuses to grant him money.
 1640 Long Parliament summoned, which lasts until 1660. It can only be dissolved by its members.
 1641 Abolition of the Star Chamber and Court of High Commission.
 1642 Charles fails in his attempt to arrest five MPs.
 1642 Outbreak of Civil War. Charles raises his standard at Nottingham. The Royalists win a tactical victory the Parliamentary army at the Battle of Edgehill but the outcome is inconclusive.
 1643 Royalists defeat Parliamentary army at Chalgrove Field, and take Bristol. Battle of Newbury is indecisive.
 1644 York is besieged by Parliamentary army until relieved by Prince Rupert. Royalists defeated at Marston Moor.
 1644 Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans enforce an Act of Parliament banning Christmas Day celebrations
 1645 Parliament creates New Model Army, which defeats the Royalist army at Naseby on 16 June.
 1646 Charles surrenders to the Scots, who hand him over to Parliament.
 1646 Negotiations take place between King and Parliament. King conspires with Scots to invade England on his behalf.
 1647 Charles escapes to the Isle of Wight but is captured. He is tried by Parliament and found guilty of high treason.
 1648 A Scots army supporting Charles is defeated at Preston.
 1649 Charles I is executed. There follows 11 years of rule by Parliament as the Commonwealth under Cromwell.

1626 Coronation Medal

Official Issue, Eimer 106

Coins

TOWER MINT, UNDER THE KING (1625-42)

Half Crown, Tower mint, Group I type 1a1, mm. lis (1625). First horseman, horse caparisoned with plume on head and crupper, rose on housings, ground-line. Rev. Square-topped shield of arms over long cross fourchée

SCBI Brooker 276 (same dies); S.2763; N.2200; Bull 8/1c-1

14.65 grams

Provenance:

Ex DNW September 2008 Lot 3771 hammer £450

Ex MH Coins List VI (2013) HC 181 £1450

Ex Coins of Britain HC 1955 / 1841

Ex Roderick Richardson

Bt MH Coins August 2021

Half Crown, Tower mint, Group I type 1a2, mm. lis (1625). First horseman, no rose on housings, no ground-line

SCBI Brooker 278; S.2764; N.2201

14.78 grams

Halfcrown Group II Type 2a, mm Plume (1630-31)

S. 2769 N. 2205 Bull –

14.89 grams

Provenance:

Bought Seaby 11/1968 £11

MH Coins July 2021

Halfcrown Group II Type 2a, mm Rose over Plume / Rose (1631-32)

S. 2769 N. 2205 Bull 130a/15 (this coin)

14.88 grams

A very rare die pairing, 1 of only 4 known specimens

Provenance:

Bought SR Porter 1986

Bull 130a/15

Halfcrown Group II Type 2b, mm Rose over Plume / Rose (1631-32)

S. 2770 N. 2206 Bull 127/17 (this coin)

14.98 grams

Provenance:

HM Lingford 1944

SR Porter 1994

Bull 127/17

Halfcrown Group II, Type 2c, mm Harp (1632-33)

 S. 2771 N. 2207

14.5 grams

Inverted A for V in AVSPICE

Provenance:

bt MH Coins March 2021

Ex Mark Rasmussen circa 2006

Halfcrown Group II, Type 2c, mm Portcullis (1633-34)

SCBI Brooker 317 (this coin) S. 2771 N. 2207 Bull 201a/20E (this coin)

14.91 grams

Reverse reads CHRISO AVSPICE REGNO

Provenance:

Dr WH Allen Collection, Sothebys 14th March 1898

John G Brooker 317

Colin Adams Collection, Spink Auction 177, 1st december 2005, lot 97

Bull 201a/20E

Halfcrown Group II, Type 2c, mm Portcullis (1633-34) (sold)

S. 2771 N. 2207 Bull

15.03 grams

Halfcrown Group III, type 3a1, sash flies from waist. mm tun (1636-38)

S. 2773 N. 2209 Bull 287/23 (this coin)

15.1 grams

Provenance:

Bt M&H Coins May 2021

Ex Maurice Bull (287/23)

Ex Alan Morris Collection, bt Lloyd Bennet 12/2002 (£200)

Halfcrown Group III, type 3b, plume over shield. mm crown (over bell) (1635-36)

S. 2774 Brooker 324 (this coin)

14.9 grams

Provenance:

Ex Grant Francis collection, Glendinings 03/1920, Lot 138 (illustrated in G. Francis’ paper ‘Silver Coins of thee Tower Mint of Charles I, Chapter II, BNJ 1917)

Ex. R.C. Lockett Collection, Glendinings 17/10/1961, Part V (English), Lot 4477 ‘very fine, rare’

Ex Lord Rodney Smith of Marlow collection, purchase by Spink, 1969

Ex J.G. Brooker collection,  SCBI Brooker 324 (this coin)

 

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Anchor (1638-39). Group III Type 3a2.

S. 2775 N. 2211 Bull 340/23 (this coin)

15.00 grams

Provenance

Ex. Maurice Bull

Ex Spink SNC 1975 (£60)

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Triangle (1639-40). Group III Type 3a2, rough groundline under horse

S. 2776 N. 2212 Bull 383b/32 (this coin)

15.05 grams

Provenance

Ex. Maurice Bull

Bt S & B Coins 65, 2002, No. E50 (£139)

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Star (1640-41), Group IV, Type 4

S. 2779 N. 2214 Hawkins 4 Bull 436/30 (this coin)

 15.03 grams

Provenance:

Ex Emyr George Collection, bt Spink Auction 84 21/05/1991

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Triangle in Circle (1641-42), Group IV, Type 4

S. 2779 N. 2214 Hawkins 4 Bull 453b/30 (this coin)

 15.16 grams

Provenance:

Bt John Newman Coins 2020

Unknown ticket 12/12/2018 (£315)

Ex Maurice Bull

Ex S. R. Porter 1995 (£55)

TOWER MINT, UNDER PARLIAMENT (1642-49)

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Eye (1645-46), Group III, Type 3a3

S. 2778 N. 2213 Bull 514a/33 (this coin)

14.81 grams

Provenance:

Ex Maurice Bull

Bought SR Porter 2001

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Sun over Eye / Sun (1645-46), Group III, Type 3a3

S. 2778 N. 2213

14.xx grams

Reverse reads CHRISO AVSPICHE REGNO

Provenance:

Bt MH Coins 2021

Ex Michael Gouby

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Sun (1645-46), Group III, Type 3a3

S. 2778 N. 2213

14.08 grams

Halfcrown Tower Mint mm Sun (1645-46), Group V, Type 5

S. 2780 N. 2215

14.80 grams

Provenance:

Ex Maurice Bull

Bought Lloyd Bennett

NICHOLAS BRIOT’S COINAGE 1631-39
FIRST MILLED ISSUE 1631-32

Halfcrown, mm. flower and B/B, king on horseback l., rev. crowned garnished oval shield of arms with C-R at sides

S.2853 N.2299 Brooker 715

14.96 grams

Provenance:

Ex MH Coins 2020

Ex Jay Walton

Bought Lloyd Bennett

SECOND MILLED ISSUE 1638-39
PROVINCIAL ISSUES AND COINAGES OF THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (1642-49)

York

Half Crown York Mint mm Lion (1643-44) Type 1, ground-line below, square-topped shield, lightly garnished top and bottom

S. 2863 N. 2309 Bull 550 Besly 1-A Brooker 1076 Hawkins 1

Wt 10.98 grams (small flan)

Provenance:

Bt MH Coins 2021

Ex Bull 550

SNC June 1982 (£300)

Half Crown York Mint mm Lion (1643-44) Type 5, crowned square-topped shield

S. 2867

Provenance:

Bt MH Coins 2020

Half Crown York Mint mm Lion (1643-44) Type 6, oval garnished shield

S. 2868

Provenance:

Bt Lloyd Bennett 2015

Ex Lockdales Auction 89 Nov 2011 Lot 1060

Half Crown York Mint mm Lion (1643-44) Type 7, crowned oval shield. Second horseman, tail between legs. Frosting to crown & garniture.

S. 2869 N. 2315 Bull 560

Provenance:

Ex Lloyd Bennett, Coinex 1985

Ex Roderick Richardson 2014

Ex Maurice Bull 2020

York was Charles I’s ‘second capital’, and after being forced to leave London early in 1642 he made his way there, arriving on 19 March. Until the middle of August his court was based at York or Beverley, whence he directed operations against the port of Hull. The establishment of a mint at York was being planned long before the outbreak of formal hostilities. Nicholas Briot, the king’s engraver, was summoned to York by a letter from Secretary of State Edward Nicholas dated 6 May in connection with Briot’s proposals concerning currency standards.7 A letter of 30 May notes that Briot had fallen ill; it does not press him, but on 21 June, Secretary Nicholas ordered Briot to York forthwith ‘et vous avertir qu’avez mener avec vous les Roues et toutes autres sortes d’instruments requis et necessaires pour icy battre de la Monnoye que S. ma’te aura occasion d’ordonner dez que vous serez arrive’. Shortly after, arrangements were made for Sir William Parkhurst, warden of the Mint, to advance Briot the money necessary for his journey. On 15 July, these plans received a severe setback when a ship carrying Briot’s equipment and personal baggage was held up off Scarborough by one Captain Stevens, who seized the equipment on the grounds that no authority had been given for its removal. Meanwhile on 7 July, David Ramage, a member of Briot’s staff, was paid £85 10s. for the provision of ‘several instruments for the two Mints at York and Shrewsbury.

Oxford

Bristol

Halfcrown, 1644, mm. plume on obv., Br on rev., small Bristol plume behind horseman, three Bristol plumes above Declaration, date below, pellet at start of legend

14.37g

Bull 640/1c (D13-1a); Morr. B-1; SCBI Brooker 980a, this coin; N 2489; S 3007

The reverse shows a shortened version of the “Declaration” which Charles made in Wellington in September 1642, in which he promised to uphold the Protestant Religion, the Laws of England, and the Liberty of Parliament, shown in two lines across the centre of the coin.
RELIG:PROT:LE:AN:LI:PA
Being an abbreviation for:-
RELIGIO PROTESTANTIUM LEGES ANGLIAE LIBERTAS PARLIAMENTI
Which translates as:-
The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England and the liberty of Parliament

Provenance:

Bt DNW Brian Dawson Halfcrown Collection Auction March 2019, lot 66

Ex J.G. Brooker Collection

Ex Spink

Bull lists this Brooker specimen in error under 640/1a (but note the diagonal flaw through the centre of the 6) and gives an incorrect weight of 12.83g

Extracts from SCBI Brooker 980A:

Exeter

Halfcrown, 1643-46, mm. rose, Exeter Mint

S. 3065

13.70g

Provenance:

bt Jay Walton

Ex. Lloyd Bennett

SCOTTISH ISSUES

Twelve Shillings, Third coinage (1637-42), Falconer’s first issue

Signed F over crown, (Murray p.138, and pl. iii, 21, same dies; SCBI 35, 1460-5, and B fig. 1017, same dies; S 5560) weight 5.84grams

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A collection of predominantly English coins from the Tudor era to the present day

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